Methodologies

-  To identify how individuals spend their time according to the economic and social activity, etc.

-  Identify the economic activities of women

-  Productivity measurement.

-  Calculation of informal sectors and the time an individual spends in these sectors.

-  Poverty time measurement

Time use survey is an important part of household surveys as it depends on the recommendations of the United Nations and ILO. The main ideas of the survey plan are:        

- The survey will last for 12 months

- The questionnaire will be completed in one of the third week days to be selected randomly. It is important that the day is not selected by the person who completes the questionnaire but by the enumerator.

- All days of the week must be represented so as to reflect time use in week days and weekends as well.

A.    Sample Design:

The sample of household income and expenditure survey was consider a drawing base for the sample of time use. The time use sample is half of the income and expenditure sample; about (125) enumeration areas out of the 250 enumeration areas for the individuals of 15 years of age and above.

 

B.    : Response Rate

The of response reached 91.3% a relatively high rate, while the rate of non – response was 1.9%, and not available rate are 3.4% and other reasons about 3.4%. 

Respondent completes the questionnaire step by step immediately after the performing the activity during the day to reduce his dependence on memory. The questionnaire contains different activities and specified periods of time (15 minutes) and it is completed by drawing a line to represent the period of time during which the activity is performed and for only one day. If an individual performs more than one activity at the same time, the most important activity should be selected. The following matters should be considered:

 1- The enumerator completes the details about the household's reference number and the serial number of the individual and his name as appeared in the questionnaire of Household Members' characteristics. The date will by the date of completing the time use survey questionnaire, and then he hands the questionnaire over to the respondent.

2 - Time use survey questionnaire should be completed within one month of the visit and the respondent should be the one who set the date. However it should not be the same day of the visit.

3- If the respondent is illiterate, the enumerator must visit him during the day, at the end of the day and next day morning and ask him/her on each visit about what he did during the day and when that was happened and who Mach time it took him and then record the same in the questionnaire.

 4 - If it is difficult to complete the activities using the watch reference period can be used instead of the actual hours printed in the questionnaire when the enumerator meets the respondents and reminds them of some times (such as periods of prayers).

 

Note:

 The questionnaire is very simple and the activity performed by the respondent could be not be printed in the activities mentioned. At first the responded should make sure if the activity is similar to any of the activities mentioned, if not he has to use the item (Others) and mentions the activity.

The international standards derived from the recommendations of the United Nations were adopted in the interpretation of the concepts used in this survey. They were articulated in a manner commensurate with the objectives of the survey and conditions of the Omani Society.

Definitions of Activities

 

1- Sleeping and Relaxation

 Includes sleeping and relaxation or attempting to sleep whether during the day or at night.

 2- Taking Food

Includes eating and drinking inside the house or in restaurants or with friends, even if he is watching TV eating his food it is considered food time. It does not include taking light food when visiting friends or watching TV.

3- Personal care

Includes cleaning, taking a bath,  shaving, beautification, etc. paid personal care such as hair cut and dressing, Henna and other personal services are not included as they fall within shopping activities.

 4- School / Homework

The time that the student spends in school or doing his homework, other activities performed during school hours such as eating, sport, etc… are considered as school activities.

5- Job (public/private)

Is the time spent by individual in doing work in both public and private sector. The other activities performed during office hours like eating and reading are considered job activity. however, mobility from - to work is not included.

6- Employer/self-employed

Include any one who works for himself or employs others in business or family works, except fishing, or weaving works even for selling purposes.

7- Work in Agriculture

The time an individual spends in agricultural works whether in a farm or garden for personal consumption or selling.

8- Animal Farming

Includes animal care and farming whether for personal use or selling.

9- Fishing

Includes all fishing activities except for fishing for enjoyment only (registered as a hobby).

10 -Shopping  

Shopping includes hair cutting, doctor's visit, vehicle services, bank dealing, etc. it also includes paid personal services. However, transportation for shopping is considered a transportation activity.

11- Handicrafts (Needlework, Spinning, Weaving)

Includes all handicrafts, whether made for sale or personal use except for fabric repairing which is considered one of the domestic works.

12 -Cooking-

   Includes all food processing and preparing works.

13-Domestic Works (washing/cleaning)-

 Includes all domestic works such as washing, cleaning and other domestic works.

14 - Care of Children and Older Persons

 Includes care of children and older persons such as nutrition and cleaning inside and outside the house as paid cars is considered a work.

 

 15  - Transportation to and from Work/School -

     Includes the time an individual spends to go and return from work/school.

16- Travel/Journeys/ Transportation

  Includes all types of travel, journeys and transportation except for transportation and travel during office hours. It even includes walking if not for physical training. Activities come within this activity such as eating, reading and others is considered an activity of travel, journey and transportation.

17- Watching TV

 Includes watching TV, which is always a secondary activity. It will come first if eating of light meals is included.

18-   Reading

   All types of reading except homework and reading in for school and work.

19- Sitting with Family:

Sitting, chatting and discussing matters with family provided that no other activities such as watching television are included.

20 - Practicing sport:

All types of sport activities including walking if it is not for moving from place to place.

21 - Social Visits:

Includes visits to relatives, and friends and sick persons. any another activity such as eating during friends visits it can be considered as eating activity (snacks are excluded).

22 - Practicing of Hobbies

All hobbies such as gardening, fishing, painting, etc. provided that these are for enjoyment.

23- Others/Specify

It includes all activities not mentioned before such as setting in cafeterias, performing transactions, job seeking, house maintenance, completion of survey questionnaire and training courses, etc.

 

-

____

مقدمة

انطلاقا من النطق السامي” تعلموا ولو تحت ظل شجرة” ، حرصت الحكومة الرشيدة على نشر التعليم لما له من أهمية بالغة في النهوض بالسلطنة، الذي غطى جميع محافظات السلطنة وشمل كلا الجنسين لمواكبة التطوير في العالم. حيث بلغ عدد المدارس في عام 2013  حوالي 1042مدرسة حكومية ، و 468 مدرسة خاصة. أما بالنسبة للتعليم العالي فقد بلغ عدد الكليات والجامعات الحكومية 26، و 27 كلية و جامعة  خاصة. ومع زيادة انتشار المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة يأتي مقترح استطلاع الرأي حول جودة التعليم في المؤسسات التعليمية  الخاصة  لما له من دور في معرفة وتقييم جودة التعليم الخاص ومدى توجه المجتمع نحوه وأسباب هذا التوجه.

والجدير بالذكر بأنه يتم تنفيذ استطلاعات للرأي حول التعليم في المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة في العديد من الدول العربية مثل الإمارات و الأردن و مصر وسوريا. بالإضافة إلى الدول الأجنبية مثل أمريكا وبريطانيا، وبعض المؤسسات الرائدة في الاستطلاعات مثل معهد جالوب.

الأهداف

تتلخص الأهداف الرئيسية لاستطلاع الرأي حول جودة التعليم في المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة:

·        تقييم جودة التعليم وهيئة التدريس في المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة.

·        مدى الرضا  عن جودة المباني والمرافق و آلية التقييم و الرسوم الدراسية في المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة.

·        قياس مدى التواصل بين المدارس الخاصة و أولياء أمور الطلبة.

·        مدى توجه المجتمع لهذه المؤسسات  وما هي  مميزاتها.

·        مدى توافر المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة في أنحاء السلطنة .

 

الفئات المستهدفة

يشمل الاستطلاع فئتين الأولى أولياء أمور طلبة المدارس الخاصة ، والفئة الثانية طلبة الجامعات والكليات الخاصة الذين على مقاعد الدراسة، ممن هم في  عمر 18 سنة فأكثر.

العينة

حجم العينة المقترح 1200 مواطن عماني كحد أدنى لأولياء أمور طلبة المدارس الخاصة، و 1200 طالب عماني  ملتحق بالجامعات والكليات الخاصة. موزعة على جميع المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة في محافظات السلطنة (11 محافظة). ويتيح ذلك العدد الحصول على تقديرات لأغلب النسب المراد تقديرها في الاستطلاع على المستوى الإجمالي للسلطنة في حدود هامش خطأ لا يتعدى 3%.

 

أسلوب جمع البيانات

يتم جمع البيانات الخاصة باستطلاع الرأي حول جودة التعليم في المؤسسات التعليمية الخاصة  عن طريق البريد الالكتروني والاتصالات الهاتفية وذلك باستخدام الهاتف الثابت والهاتف المتنقل بنسب متساوية ، وتمتاز هذه الطرق بتوفير الوقت والجهد وتكلفة جمع البيانات، مما يتيح إمكانية إجراء الاستطلاع بشكل دوري. كما أن أسلوب الاتصالات الهاتفية والبريد الالكتروني مناسب لموضوع الاستطلاع وعدد الأسئلة المحدود بالاستمارة.

الاستبيان

تم تصميم الاستبيان المرفق المستخدم لجمع بيانات الاستطلاع ليناسب أسلوب الاتصالات الهاتفية والبريد الالكتروني من حيث سهولة وعدد وتسلسل الأسئلة.

 
 

Introduction:

 

Traffic accidents are considered the most important global problems which facing humanity and which have a social and economic damage, the World Report talked about the case of the road safety in 2013 that injuries caused by traffic accidents are the leading cause of death among young people aged between 15-29 in which requires intervention procedures to enhance road safety, which may reduce the severity of this phenomenon.

 At the local level, indicate statistics released by the Traffic Department of the Royal Oman Police recorded 5768 traffic accident in Oman in 2014 claimed the lives of 816 people and resulted in the injury of 4143.

 

 During the last years, the competent authorities of traffic safety made efforts to promote the road safety. And the most important work was the traffic safety seminar, which was held in response to the orders of the High Commissioner in May of 2010, which resulted in the number of recommendations came from including the need to adopt a scientific, academic and research institutions more of scientific studies and research in the field of traffic safety, and to encourage and provide appropriate support for those interested in studying and traffic issues.

 

Many countries of the world doing polls about the traffic safety , for example, implementation a joint poll between EU countries every year , it aims to find out the most important safety problems irrigated in those countries , and know the areas where the population feels that the concerned authorities are not doing enough in order to achieve traffic safety , Another Example is the survey about traffic safety and awareness , which in Texas which is implemented annually in Taxes by conducting  personal interviews to those who are at the age of 18 years and above and aims to measure the level of awareness and compliance with traffic regulations

 

this proposal comes to implementation  the opinion poll about the traffic safety in the framework of the efforts to promote traffic safety by identifying the level of awareness and commitment to the principles and laws of road safety , and end up with indicators  which can be used in decision-making and  prepare  more detailed studies on this subject .

 

 

Goals:

 

The public Opinion poll about traffic safety aims to provide information about the current conditions of traffic safety including the following:

• To know the opinion of the audience about traffic congestion, and its causes.

• To Measure the knowledge and commitment of traffic laws which relate to seat belts, the speed limit and the usage of cell phone while driving.

•To know the Omani views about the problem of traffic accidents causes and behaviors that lead to it.

• To know the Omani opinions about the actions undertaken by the authorities concerned with traffic safety.

 

Methodology:

Sample

The survey targeted citizens and residents in the Sultanate who are at the age of 18 years or more. The sample size of 3,000 person (minimum) of the different governorates of the Sultanate, and this number allows to attain most estimates of the desired ratios from this survey on the overall level of the Sultanate and the level of the governorates within the margin of error does not exceed 3%.

Weights

The weights  are used so that the sample properties in term of demographic following variables: the governorates sex , nationality (citizen/expatriate) , educational level ( less than secondary , secondary , higher secondary) , and age ( less than 30 years , 30-49 0.50 years and over ) with distribution of the Omani society , according to 2015 estimates .

Data collection method

The data of traffic safety poll collect through phone calls using landline and mobile phone. This method is reliable because it saves time, effort, and cost of data collection. Computer assisted telephonic interview (CATI) is an appropriate method for the survey subject because of the ease and limited number of questions. The questionnaire is available in English for opinions of residents who do not speak Arabic.

 

                                                                                                                  

An index is a statistical indicator that measures the relative change on the values of a certain phenomenon (price - quantity - value - wage … etc.) through time.

The producer price indices (PPIs) are a set of statistical indicators that measure the average changes that occurs on the prices of goods produced and sold by producers. It is based on a basket of goods - a wide collection of specific typical or representative  products -whose prices are collected quarterly from the manufacturers, which represent the prices of industrial production in the period of time (called the comparison period) relative to another period (base period). This change in prices reflects the burden on the consumer and the circumstances and the cost of living, whether they register an increase or decrease, relative to the base year.

The uses of the PPI vary from country to country but, in general, the main common uses can be identified:

  • Measuring the broader inflation level together with other indices such as (CPI - WPI - IPI).
  • whether inflation due to the change in the prices of locally produced goods.
  • In economic and social analysis and determination of the policies thereof.
  • As deflator for converting aggregates from current prices to constant prices in the national accounts and the balance of payments.
  • Comparison of the relative movements of prices.
  • Predict the change in CPI in terms of locally produced goods.

The construction of the PPI started in 2006 using data and outputs of the production activities for 2005 as referral year to prepare weighted averages for the production activities and goods (relative share) according to ISIC and CPC. The final index uses the year 2007 as the base year for both the prices and production weights. At the first stage, the PPI covers products in all manufacturing sector, mining and quarrying, and electricity and water industries. The PPI is calculated for three closely related aggregates where two series of indices are prepared namely producers price index for domestic use and producer price index for export; the general price index is prepared by using these two series according to CPC.

Due to the importance of the index and continuity in its preparation, an automated new system has been established to enable workers in preparing and updating the index periodically as to the expected developments that are expected to affect this indicator.

Like any other statistical product, the compilation of the Producer Price Index requires a lot of preparation before the actual calculation of the index. The quality of this statistical indicator, like any other statistical product depends on compatibility of the methodology requirements and the practical issues for its production as follows:

1-     Scope.

2-     Weights (relative significance).

3-     Price survey sources.

4-     Goods basket.

5-     Base year.

6-     Frequency of price survey. 

7-     Calculation of the index.

 

The current PPI in the Sultanate according to the Central Product Classification (CPC) covers the following three main production sectors: Mining and quarrying (C), Manufacturing (D), Electricity and water (E)  whereas all activities classified in these sectors were included. A sample of establishments was selected from each of the main activities, and these companies’ main goods and items were selected to be followed quarterly.

The data of the 2007 annual industrial survey from Ministry of Commerce and Industry were used for calculating the relative share of the various industries outputs produced in the Sultanate whether sold in local markets or exported to other countries. As the industry produces goods for domestic use or export , the weighted averages were prepared for products entering the local market, exported products as well as weights for the total production.

The PPI covers all relevant industries at 4-digit industry level (ISIC). Only some 5% of the total manufacturing output from various small industries is not covered in the price collection. The goods’ weights and their items were calculated using data obtained from the sampled industrial establishments.

The industrial establishments in the sample are classified according to the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). About 157 sources covers all sectors which were chosen using economic survey of 2007 are about 160.

Product basket comprises three levels: Level one for the main groups, level two for the sub groups and the last level for items of goods .The goods are classified according to the Central Product Classification (CPC),  and the selection was by the relative share inside the company.

First level (Main Groups)

Consists of :

1-     Products of Mining, Electricity & Water.

2-     Products of Food, Beverages & Textiles.

3-     Products of Transportable Goods.

4-     Products of Metal, Machinery & Equipment.

Second level (Sub-Group)

Includes the sub groups of the main groups. As example : group of food, beverages, textiles, clothes and foot wear is divided into many groups such as: fish, fruits, vegetables and oil group, dairy products group, grain products group …etc. and the same is for other main groups.

Third level (Transactions)

Items of goods is the last level in the classification where each item is defined according to the data received from source such as size , unit of measure and other specifications to facilitate the researcher follow up of the item’s price accurately .

Example :

  • Mango Juice /Khaleej/ 1x24x250 ml (carton)
  • Tomato Sauce/Jumbo/ 36x88 ml (carton)

 

 

The price index depends on the referring the values of the current period to a base period for the same product or transaction. Therefore, a base year price will be established. These are average prices of items during the year specified as the base year. However, the selection of the base year requires that such year must be a normal one i.e. there is economic stability. The base year will be updated every five years. The year 2007 was chosen as the base year for PPI in the Sultanate. 

Currently, the prices are collected quarterly from all selected establishments where 564 items of 121 commodity entering local market, and 329 items of 102 export commodity. The data are collected through an integrated automated program linked to the internet. This enable sampled establishments to enter and audit their data. The sources are followed up electronically and by phone till receiving their data.

The price collection is followed by the auditing process where the current price is compared with the price of previous quarter and so on for the other sources.

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CPI, as is the case with any statistical product, needs certain requirements for its preparation and compilation has been undergoing basic phrases and steps. The quality of this index depends on the availability of its requirements. The following is a review of the factors which are taken into consideration when compiling the CPI:

 

1.     Weights  (Relative Significance).

2.     Consumer basket.

3.     Geographic Scope and Prices Survey Sources.

4.     Price survey and auditing.

5.     Base Year.

The weighted CPI, as it is known, reflects the actual change in prices since the impact of prices on the consumer depended, to a large extent, on the importance of the good or service to the consumer, or its relative weight from total expenditure. In preparing the weighted average, weights are prepared which are the relative structure of expenditure derived from household expenditure and income surveys data. These weights include consumption expenditure only. Consequently, determining the relative importance of goods constituting the CPI have  great impact and importance in the accuracy and representation of CPI                                                                                                                                                          

The process of the compilation of the weights for the CPI series on the basis of 2012 as base year, depending upon Household Expenditure and Income Surveys of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011. The updating of the selected goods and services weights in the goods and services basket for the base year 2012 through their prices in 2012 was also carried, so that the base year would be the same year of  Household Expenditure and Income Survey which reflected the value of expenditure on goods and services. The following table shows the relative importance for goods and services by Governorate.

 

Relative importance (Weights) of the Main Groups by Governorate in Base year 2012

Group

Sultanate

Muscat

North Al Batinah

Adh Dhahirah

Ad Dakhliyah

North & South Sharqiah

Dhofar

Al Buraymi

 

Foods & non-alcoholic beverages

23.903

16.822

29.685

26.946

 

28.078

29.425

27.818

26.863

Bread & Cereals

3.020

2.170

4.116

3.240

3.139

3.528

3.051

3.045

Meat

6.103

3.962

7.057

7.581

8.224

7.812

7.718

7.903

Fish & seafood

2.208

1.243

3.444

1.913

2.002

3.504

2.060

2.063

Milk, Cheese & Eggs

2.865

2.054

3.154

2.950

2.719

2.934

6.381

2.878

Oils & Fats

0.715

0.511

0.848

0.907

0.775

1.034

0.654

0.841

Fruit

2.815

1.901

3.338

3.648

4.440

3.884

1.501

3.144

Vegetables

2.493

1.962

3.286

2.679

2.999

2.849

1.947

2.568

Sugar, Jam, Honey & Confectionary

1.135

0.895

1.321

1.576

1.294

1.088

1.317

1.6 54

Food Products n.e.c.

0.521

0.415

0.668

0.549

0.580

0.636

0.323

0.577

Non-alcoholic beverages

2.028

1.709

2.453

1.903

1.906

2.156

2.866

2.010

Tobacco

0.125

0.078

0.142

0.181

0.031

0.122

0.417

0.209

Clothing & Footwear

5.961

5.366

6.862

6.501

6.069

6.866

4.566

6.701

Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

26.477

34.703

21.200

17.336

19.204

24.066

27.648

15.971

Furnishings, household equipment & routing household maintenance

3.787

4.057

3.598

3.494

3.576

3.737

4.214

3.700

Health

1.161

1.329

1.200

1.145

1.207

0.950

0.388

1.187

Transport

19.167

19.268

15.929

24.125

26.215

19.027

14.707

25.089

Communication

5.633

5.372

6.382

5.616

4.897

5.205

7.288

5.529

Recreation and Culture

1.135

1.475

1.104

0.946

0.967

0.771

0.699

0.915

Education

1.368

1.843

1.147

1.071

0.760

1.156

1.262

1.092

Resturants and Hotels

6.098

4.721

7.144

6.724

3.814

4.081

4.965

7.006

Miscellaneous goods and services

5.185

4.967

5.607

5.915

5.162

4.594

6.028

5.918

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Household Expenditure & Income Surveys, Average expenditure for the year 2008/2009, 2009/2010 & 2010/2011.

The consumption expenditure of families includes a large number of items ( goods and services) that are difficult to deal with them all, and hence it is not logical to use the prices of all goods and services used by consumers for compiling the CPI. Consequently, the practical conditions necessitate the selection of a group of goods and services which is considered representative of the consumption patterns of the community. Household Consumption and Income Surveys are the main source of this information about the different types of consumption during a whole year to cover the different seasons and conditions for families. The selected goods and services are called the consumer basket. The selected components of the consumer basket are divided into harmonized groups in accordance with the recommendation of SNA of the United Nations for the purpose of achieving coordination and complementary between the different statistics produced by the statistical authority for serving the preparation of National Accounts. 

 

The goods and services composing the consumer basket are divided into a number of main and sub- groups, in addition to the division into items, which is the last level. Goods and services are classified in accordance with the international classification (Individual consumption classification by purpose (COICOP).

The first level of classification of the consumer basket comprises twelve main groups as follows:

1.  Foods & non-alcoholic beverages.

2.  Tobacco.

3.  Clothing and footwear.

4.  Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels.

5.  Furnishings, household equipment & routing household maintenance.

6.  Health.

7.  Transport.

8.  Communications.

9.   Recreation and Culture.

10. Education.

11. Hotels and Restaurants.

12. Miscellaneous goods and services.

Some of the main groups in this level were divided into a number of sub- groups,

e.g., Food, beverages and non alcoholic drinks were divided into two groups: Food and non  - alcoholic drinks.

In this group the second level groups were divided into secondary groups, specially groups which include a large number of goods e.g., Bread and Cereal Group were divided into five sub-groups which were: Rice, Flour, Bread and Bakery Products, Vermicelli and products and children products and other cereal products.

The forth level represents goods and services obtained from Household Expenditure and Income Surveys, thus it is the basis on which price surveys depend. It is in the light of these goods and services the items comprising the consumer basket were chosen. Furthermore, average weights were built on this level. For instance, Rice group includes Indian, Pakistani and other types of rice.

For each good a number of widely used or traded items are selected. Three items were selected for each good and service in the forth level according to the nature of that particular good and service. When selecting these items  due consideration was given to the basis of its representation in that it always represent the consumer’s choice and its level of trading in the markets. Some services, however, were represented by one or two items. Before carrying this task, accurate description of these items in terms of shapes, unit of measure, the material made of, where it is manufactured, local or imported product and technical specification…. Etc must be done in addition to any comments which will assist in identifying the good or service so that no change in the price would occur due to changes in the unit of measure or specifications. The following items are given here as an example of the accurate classification of items:

  • Indian basmati rice / Tilda / plastic bag / 5 Kg / India.
  • Pakistani basmati rice / Guard / plastic bag / 5 kg / Pakistan.
  • Wheat Flour / Golden no. one / plastic bag  / 5 kg / Oman Flour Mills.

             It is worth noting that goods and services for the base year 2012 included 28,168   items.

The geographic area for the CPI is determined by the geographic distribution of data sources from which the prices of goods and services are obtained for goods and services included in the CPI. Looking at the updating series of the CPI in the base year 2012, it is found that it covers all Governorates of the Sultanate except Musandam and Al Wasta Governorates in view of the small size of their population. The Wilayats representing the Governorates are selected on the basis of their population density and the geographic location of the Wilayat. As for Muscat Governorate the survey covers all Wilayats. The following table shows the geographic area for the base year 2012.

  

Base year

Survey Coverage

2012

Muscat Governorate ( Al Wilayats)

North Al Batinah ( Sohar, Al Suwaiq)

Adh Dhahira (Ibri)

Ad Dakhyah (Nizwa, Samail)

North & South Ash sharqiah (Ibra, Sur)

Dhofar ( Salalah)

Al Buraymi (Al buraymi)

No doubt complete coverage of all Governorate of the Sultanate is highly required but this would require huge effort for obtaining prices on a periodic basis from all governorates of the Sultanate. This would require selecting the sources which are representative of the geographic distribution of the country and allocate researches for collecting prices according to the specified periods.

 

Sources for collecting prices were determined by field visits carried out by a team from the Directorate General of Economic Statistics to all Wilayats covered by the Surveys for the purpose of selecting the appropriate sources. When choosing the source due consideration was given to the representative property of the source, in that it represents a purchasing point for a large segment of consumers in the particular Wilayat. The geographic distribution has also been taken into consideration of sources in the Wilayat and that it is a retail outlet, in addition to the availability of a large number of items within the sources that covers the demanded goods for the consumers basket. The total number of sources from which goods and services prices are collected reach 1721 source distributed among all governorates of the Sultanate. These sources are divided according to commodity groups as follows:

 

- Fresh fish markets: From which fresh fish prices are collected.

- Sale of fresh fruits and vegetables shops: From which fresh fruits and vegetables prices are collected in addition to the prices of dates.

Sale of fresh meat & poultry shops: fresh and frozen meat and live chicken prices are collected.

- Frozen fish: prices of frozen fish are collected from fish companies.

Hypermarkets: these are considered one of the main sources of price collection and they include the above mentioned sources. These outlets include Fresh Fish, Fresh Meat & Poultry, Fresh Fruits & Vegetables in addition to various commodities the prices of which are also collected from Hypermarkets. These include Rice, Flour, Other Cereal Products, some kinds of Canned Fish, Frozen Shrimps, Oil & Fats, Milk & Milk Products, Eggs, Spices and Salts, Nuts, Sugar and Sugar products, Dried & Canned legumes, Canned & Frozen fruits  and Vegetables, Tea and Coffee, Non alcoholic Drinks, Some types of Readymade Foods, Different kinds of Tobacco and Personal Care items.

 - Sources of Durable Goods: Price collection of durable goods differs in accordance with these types of each good where there are specialized sources for the sale of certain goods as well as joint sources for more than one good. Durable goods sources are divided into goods and services. The sources for goods include shops for the sale of Readymade Clothes, Footwear, Textiles, Household equipments and Utensils, Medication & Eye Glasses, Vehicles, Some types of spare parts, Electronic devices such as Televisions, Mobile Phones, computers, School Materials and Stationary , Other Personal Care Goods such as Perfumes and Cosmetics in addition to Gold, Silver & Furniture.

As for services sources, they include Restaurants, Laundry shops, Government Hospitals services, Private Clinics, House Maintenance Materials, Transport Services, such as Vehicles Insurance, Air Travel Tickets, Public Transport services, Car Rental & Driving Learning Schools, in addition to Car Repair and Washing services, Recreation Services such as Cinemas, Education Services, Such as Schools and Private Institutes,  Personal Services such as Washing & Ironing Services, Barbering in addition to Administrative Charges such as charges for Passports and Identification Cards issues, Driving licenses and labor cards.

Rented Units: The sample of rented units was extracted from the General Census of Population, Housing and Establishments of 2010 by taking a stratum of data distribution among the different types of housing (apartments, villas and Arabic houses), classified by the number of bedrooms. The relative importance was weighed according to the density of rented units in each governorate. The sample size of rented units reached 1150 in total distributed among all governorates, 600 units in Muscat Governorate, reflecting the density of rented units in this governorate and 550 rented units distribution among the rest of the Sultanate’s Governorates. These rented units were selected according to the density of the rented units and the widely spread types of units in each Wilayat and governorate which are collected according to the rent period.

 

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Household expenditure and income survey is an imperative family survey that should be conducted when executing a national statistical program in any country in the world. Even though it is important, it is considered as one of the most difficult family surveys and most costly and effort demanding.

The Ministry of National Economy had been conducting the survey at the national level for the first time for  three successive years during the period (20th May 1999- 19th  May 2002).  During this period, very important statistical database, from the economic and social perspective, was built to get aware of the prevalent living conditions in the Sultanate.

The Ministry repeated the execution of this survey in the same season for another period (20th of May 2006- 19th of May 2007) as part of a plan to execute this survey for five continuing years during the period (20th of May 2006- 19th of May 2011).

The objectives of the family expenditure and income survey are to provide the necessary primary data to develop policies at national levels for different sectors as follows:

a.     To get acquainted with sizes and patterns of the annual consumer expenditure   for the family sector in the Sultanate of Oman and its relationship with the demographic, economic and social variables in respect with the Omanis and foreigners at the level of the Sultanate ( urban/ villages) and at the level of Governorates and Areas

b.    The survey provides data  that are used for the purpose of the economic and social development in the Sultanate. These data enable the possibility of evaluation of the impact of the current or the proposed economic and social development on the living conditions of the assessment of the distributional impacts and social gains from the financial policies.

c.     Obtaining weights and other data which are essential for planning to collect statistics of prices and review of standard figures of the consumer prices.

d.    Computation of means of the annual consumer expenditure of the family and individuals on different expenditure items (commodities and services) and the study of influencing factors.

e.     Computation of means of family and individuals income according to different sources of income.

f.      Computation of flexibility of expenditure on commodities and services in relation to change in income.

g.     Studying levels of wages and their effect on the aspects of the family consumer expenditure ( housing, health and education ….)

h.    To be acquainted with the volume of current demand and assess the future demand of necessary commodities and services in order to meet the population's needs whether by local product or imports

i.      To be acquainted with the distribution of population over different income and expenditure categories and analyses of related factors

j.       Satisfy the national accounts system from data related to preparation of income and production accounts and spending them, besides, the capital of the family sector which is regarded as one of the main sectors of the national economy, and providing necessary data to build the social matrix.

k.    To be acquainted with activities of the informal sector , the activity of agriculture and its productivity which takes place inside the family sector ( outside the establishments) and its importance to the national economy.

1 – Survey Unit

The Household expenditure and income survey unit consists of the living together family which is and individual or group of individuals whether related to each other by bond of kinship or not  and share the domicile and one type or more of living arrangements, forming as a whole one living unit that spends on its consumer  needs of commodities and services from their aggregated income whether coming from one member of the family or more. For more explanation we elaborate this definition in the following:

- House servants and alike are considered members of the family as long as the family provides lodge, food and clothing

-  Any family member temporarily absent will be considered as a member of the family, for example, those who are outside the Sultanate for study or medical treatment….. etc,

2- inclusiveness:

The survey included all areas and governorates of the Sultanate in respect with its urban and rural administrative divisions. The statistical community has been defined to include all Private Omani living together families and foreigners. For important considerations related to the field implementation, it was decided to exclude the communal   families and labor camps which are foreign families made of a group of individuals living in labor camps.

3- Duration of Survey:

The survey data collect extended to a whole year from 20 May 2006 – 19 May 2007. The participation of a family was limited to one month.

4- Registration Period (Time Support):

Intended to mean the period during which data are collected and differs with the different types of data as follows:

-  The period of registration is one month in terms of items of expenditure on food, beverage and tobacco and for semi-durable commodities and services

-  Period of previous registration for personal income data is one month

-  Period of registration for items of expenditure on durable commodities is 12 months, as of the month of the visit, while the period of registration for personal transport means is 36 months

-  Period of previous registration annual income data is 12 months from the end of visit

-  Time support for data of housing specifications and demographic specifications is the 20th of each month.

-   Period of registration for data of relationship with labor force is (10-16) of each month.

5 field Work Stage:

Start of execution of this stage is decided to be on 20/5/2006  and data collect period will extend to a whole year and end on 19/5/2007. The method of direct visit was followed to collect data. The field work was organized to in a manner to guarantee control and precision in obtaining best results. Twelve temporary centers were prepared out of which 10 centers are outside Muscat Governorate.

A plan was implemented to make all field teams visit sample families several times. These visits depended on the extent of the family cooperation, on one hand, and presence of a person in the family capable of registration, on the other hand. The visits were as follows:

a.   Exploratory   Visit:

To determine the counting areas on the ground according to the delivered maps. This visit will be conducted by the field overseer who will also update the examination scope of the month of the visit one week before commencing the field work.

b.   First Visit:

The field worker will conduct this visit two days before the stat of actual registration month in the presence of the overseer. In this visit they will introduce themselves, the survey and train the family on how to register and they will receive the book of registration of daily expenditure. During this visit, also, the worker will complete the data of housing specifications, services and demographic specifications of the members of the family and methods of income generation.

c.   Registration Papers Draw Visit:

The field worker will make a number of field visits)its (about 8 visits) to draw the registration papers from the registration book after reviewing with the family, and after the worker returns to the office, she encodes the commodities and services and then the overseer or the supervisor reviews the encoding.

d.   Last Visit:

The worker, after the end of registration month, completes the questions of the last visit inclosing the questions of durable commodities purchased during the last 12 months, and, also, questions of the monthly income and the annual income of the family. At the end of the meeting the worker thanks the family for their response and cooperation in the survey.

The visits made by the worker were between 100-120 visits monthly. The number of families assigned to the worker was about 10 families.

6- Data Preparation Process:

This stage is divided into four divisions aiming at refining and preparing data for the stage of analysis and extract of tables. The divisions are:

a.   Office Revision:

At the end of every working day, the worker reviews and audit the forms with the overseer using field auditing instructions to find out formal and technical mistakes and make sure of the logicality of the data. The commodity and services lists will be encoded using commodity and services encoding guide.

b.   Central Review:

There is a review team in the main office commissioned to review and audit the forms incoming from the field and correct mistakes, whether arithmetic or logical mistakes. The overseer takes the remarks and commissions the field workers to correct the mistakes that require returning to the family.

c.   Data Entry:

After finishing the auditing and encoding, the data entry will be done by the entry team at the main center. The entry system is furnished with automatic auditing rules to find out mistakes and correct them.

d.   Review After Entry:

It was done by operating a set of data check and refining programs and commodity review by value and quantity and review of income and expenditure data.

 

There are several ways to collect data from all individuals during the conduct of the statistical survey. One of these ways is to make a general census and interview all the population during the census. Other methods include conducting surveys by sample. This kind of survey is done when considerations related to time and cost prevent collecting data from every person. A number   of subjects will be chosen  (families)  from among all the population to form a representative sample. The sample will be chosen in a manner that ensures that the results obtained may represent all the population , and this means making effort to obtain information about all the families included in the sample.

1- Sample Drawing basis:

The general census of 2003 was adopted as a basis for drawing a sample of Household expenditure and income survey (2006-2007).

The sample was designed to include all Omani families and foreigners In the Sultanate and this survey is oriented to the entire family as it is the final examination unit. Every governorate or area in the eight regions of the sultanate ia considered an independent category subdivided to census counting of different sizes.

2 Stages of Sampling :

The Sample was chosen from two stages:

First Stage: 250 areas out of the overall counting areas in Sultanate  which make up (3167) areas according to the general census of the population 2003 by the method of random likelihood examination regularly drawn taking into consideration the family distribution according to the urban state in each governorate and area.

Second Stage: 2o families were chosen from every counting area of (250) counting areas which were chosen in the first stage, so we have 5000 families (250x 20).  This makes up the number of the families of the survey sample distributed to 12 months to represent all months of the year equally.

3- Sample Distribution:

The Sultanate is divided to 8 areas and governorates against (3176) statistical counting areas divided based on the general census of (2003). It is worthy noticing that dividing the Sultanate into counting areas used for statistical purposes by Ministry of National Economy, we must mention here, the distribution of counting areas in Al Buraymi Governorate  according to the census of (2003)  belongs to Adh - Dhahirah Region, consequently, the published data represent Al Buraymi Governorate as part of  Adh - Dhahirah Region.

 

 

A- The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Economic Activity

 

1- Agriculture:

 Sources of data used in estimating Output include the annual survey of agricultural production for the main crops, some studies carried out by Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and the periodic survey of agricultural products and livestock prices conducted by the Centre. The studies and researches carried by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries are utilized for calculating of intermediate consumption.

 

2- Fisheries:

     Estimates of the output were based on the periodic surveys of traditional fishermen conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and also data of commercial fishing companies. As for intermediate consumption some studies prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries were used in the estimation process.

3- Mining and Quarrying:

3-1 Crude Petroleum: Crude Petroleum Output estimates are obtained by multiplying production quantities by average monthly price of oil plus the value of crude petroleum sales to Oman Oil Refineries and Petroleum Industries Company (ORPIC). The production includes estimated income of services generated by oil companies. The value added of this activity is estimated by subtracting the value of intermediate consumption (estimated on the basis detailed data analysis of current expenditure of PDO and other oil companies) from the value of output.

3-2 Services Incidental to Oil and Gas: Output represents the cost of drilling and exploration by the oil companies. The intermediate consumption is estimated on the basis of field surveys.

3-3 Mining of Non Ferrous Metal Ores: Estimates of value added is based on the analysis of balance sheet of the companies working in this field

3-4 Quarrying of Stone Sand & Clay: Quarrying of stone, sand and clay production estimates for this activity are based on the periodic survey of quantities conducted by Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

3-5 Natural Gas: The output of the natural gas activity represents the value of the government gas consumed. The intermediate consumption is computed based on the cost of operation of the Government Gas System .It also constitutes the production of the upstream project of the government owned OLNG , which is the sales of gas to Oman Liquefied Natural Gas Company . The intermediate consumption was calculated according to the costs of production operations.

4- Manufacturing:

4-1 Manufacturing of Refined Petroleum Products: The value added of this industry was estimated based on the analysis of the Oman Oil Refineries and Petroleum Industries Company (ORPIC) budget.

4-2 Other Manufacturing: Results of economic survey carried out by the Centre and the Industrial Survey conducted by Ministry of Commerce and Industry was used in the estimates of this activity.

4-3 Manufacturing of chemicals and Chemicals Products: Value added based on the analysis of the budget of the companies working in this field.

5- Electricity and Water:

5-1 Electricity: The value added of this activity is represented by the analysis of the budget of the companies operating in the area of production, transport and distribution of electricity

5-2 Water: This Activity is divided into public (government) production and private production. Government production represents total government revenues from selling water. Private production equals to the value of the water consumed by households that do not use government water.

6- Construction:

   The construction activity includes all the residential and non-residential buildings construction operations, construction of roads, electricity and water projects and land preparation etc.

Estimates of this activity were based the annual economic survey of the construction carried out by the Centre.

7- Wholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Vehicles and Personal Household Goods:

7-1 Maintenance of Vehicles: Output represents the maintenance requirements of the vehicles for the different economic activities, in addition to the individual’s expenditure in this field.

7-2 Wholesale and Retail Trade: The output of this activity was estimated based on the trade margins for the locally produced commodities by type of commodity and the total trade margin for imports by type of commodity. Intermediate consumption is obtained from the results of economic surveys of this activity.

7-3 Repair of Personal and Household Goods: Output represents the households’ expenditure on repairing personal and household goods.

8- Hotels and Restaurants:

Estimates were based on the annual survey of hotels and restaurants carried out by the Centre.

9- Transport, Storage and Communications:

9-1 Transport: Output estimates are based on the transport margin for the total supply of goods (i.e., domestic production plus imports) in addition to the analysis of financial statements of some companies working in the transport field as well as the results of the annual economic survey.

9-2 Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones: Estimates were based on the accounts of the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunication   and on the final accounts of the Oman Telecommunications Company (Omantel) and Omani Qatari Telecommunications Company (Ooredoo).

10- Financial Intermediation:

   Estimates were based on the annual surveys of Banks, Insurance companies, other intermediaries and the analysis of final accounts of Muscat Securities Market (MSM) and the Central Bank of Oman (CBO) .

11- Real Estate and Business Activities:

   Several secondary activities come under this activity. In general, government, oil companies’ employment data, the average wage, number of house by type and average rent were used to calculate the details of this activity. In addition to the analysis of economic surveys data.

12- Producers of Government Services:

   The value added of this activity represents salaries, wages and depreciation. Estimates were based on the State’s final accounts. The financial accounts were re-classified into economic accounts according to the New System of National Accounts (SNA 93) in addition to the distribution of government expenditure to (1) sectors and the re-valuation of depreciation by using the Perpetual Inventory Method.

13- Education:

   Education is divided into public education and private education. Private education output represents the revenue of private schools & language schools, Private Collages, institutes and driving schools. These estimates were based on the results of the annual economic survey conducted by the Centre and the other quantitative statistics such as, number of students, schools and institutes. Output of public education, represents salaries and wages of the government education sector, plus depreciation, and intermediate consumption.

14- Health:

   This activity is also divided into public and private Health. Private health output represents the income of all private clinics and hospitals. Estimates were based on the results of the annual economic survey.

   Output of public health represents salaries and wages of the health sector in the government budget, plus depreciation, and the intermediate consumption.

15- Other Community, Social & Personal Services

   This activity is divided into public and private. The public aspect represents salaries and wages of the housing sector and the entertainment, cultural and sport sector, plus depreciation plus the intermediate consumption.

  The private aspect however, was estimated by using economic indicators from studies conducted by the Centre.

16- Private Households with Employed Persons:

   Numbers of housemaids, servants, cooks and chauffeurs, in addition to the average annual salary were used to estimate the value of output.

 

B- Goods and Services Account:

 

1-  Household Final Consumption:

   This is measured by the value of all the individual consumption goods and services acquired by resident households.

2-  Government Final Consumption:

   It is based on the government accounts and it’s calculated by taking total production minus sales of the government.

3-  Gross Fixed Capital Formation:

   The Gross fixed Capital Formation represents the value of imports of machinery equipment, building and construction in addition to the intangible capital formation, which is an estimate of oil and gas survey and exploration services. 

4-  Export and Import of Goods and Services:

   These estimates were based on the foreign trade statistics of commodities and the estimates of the balance of payments prepared by the Central Bank of Oman.

 

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